Week 6 MOHA 510 1.)What actions and behaviors might a health leader perform to proactively and positively change organizational culture? 2) After a leng

Week 6 MOHA 510 1.)What actions and behaviors might a health leader perform to proactively and positively change organizational culture? 2) After a lengthy debate on strategy (which was going nowhere) in the resent St. Nicholas senior team meeting, Susan Edwards, VP of planning, made the following point: “Colleagues, Michael Porter is the guru of strategy planning and visioning. He clearly states that no maintain a competitive advantage, an organization must either provide a cost benefit or differentiate their services- or possibly both. May I suggest that here at St. Nicholas, we are doing neither. We are the high-cost provider in the area, and while we do have some good quality indicators, we are not really providing any services that are unique.” As would be expected this comment started a verbal brawl. – Pondered careful this brief case example. Did Edwards do the right thing by introducing a discussion around the process of strategy and visioning? – If she wanted to take a more data-driven approach concerning St. Nicholas’s cost and market-differentiation position, what might that have looked like? How might the outcome have differed. ... continue reading.

To what extent does Johnny Tremain reflect the realities of the American Revolution? Responses to this question should be rooted in the assigned film and

To what extent does Johnny Tremain reflect the realities of the American Revolution? Responses to this question should be rooted in the assigned film and readings. _ 800-1000 words double spaced 12 pt font 1 inch margins Chicago Style footnotes word count at bottom of last page Readings Yawp, Chapter 5, “Revolution” and Chapter 6, “A New Nation” https://www.ushistory.org/documents/declaration.htm https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/constitution https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/bill-of-rights-transcript ... continue reading.

Question_7 Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 7Assigned Readings:Chapter 8. Management of Product, Process, and Support DesignInitial Postings: Read and

Question_7 Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 7Assigned Readings:Chapter 8. Management of Product, Process, and Support DesignInitial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions: Henry Ford invented mass production. In doing so, he perfected the assembly line concept in which each worker does only one job or a handful of jobs and is given little other responsibility. This worked well for 70 years; however, it became apparent in the 1990s that an increasing number of U.S. companies could not produce a high-quality product by sticking to the assembly line model. What has changed? Discuss the risks involved in the project “buying a used car.” Develop a risk management plan for this project. [Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student’s own words – do not provide quotes!] [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). Post the actual body of your paper in the discussion thread then attach a Word version of the paper for APA review] Activity 7 Prepare a risk management plan for the project of finding a job after graduation. This is to be in narrative form and should be as thorough as possible. Bullet points should not to be used. The paper should be at least 1.5 – 2 pages in length, Times New Roman 12-pt font, double-spaced, 1 inch margins and utilizing at least one outside scholarly or professional source related to project management. The textbook should also be utilized. Do not insert excess line spacing. APA formatting and citation should be used. Project Management: Processes, Methodologies, and Economics Third Edition Chapter 8 Management of Product, Process, and Support Design Copyright © 2017, 2005, 1994 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved If this PowerPoint presentation contains mathematical equations, you may need to check that your computer has the following installed: 1) MathType Plugin 2) Math Player (free versions available) 3) NVDA Reader (free versions available) Figure 8-1 Lost Revenue as a Result of Delay in Reaching Market Copyright © 2017, 2005, 1994 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Table 8-1 Factors That Affect the Tempo of Manufacturing Firms Copyright © 2017, 2005, 1994 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Table 8-2 Quality Chart for New Bicycle Design Copyright © 2017, 2005, 1994 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 8-2 House of Quality Copyright © 2017, 2005, 1994 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 8-3 Relationship Between Quality and Cost Copyright © 2017, 2005, 1994 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Copyright Copyright © 2017, 2005, 1994 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7 ... continue reading.

Info Tech Mobileapp Week7 Assignment Building the Derby App in App in PhoneGap App in PhoneGap – Alternative Formats – Page 330. see Chapter 11 Build

Info Tech Mobileapp Week7 Assignment Building the Derby App in App in PhoneGap App in PhoneGap – Alternative Formats – Page 330. see Chapter 11 Building the Derby App in MonoTouch App in MonoTouch – Alternative Formats – Page 362. see Chapter 12 For submission : Read carefully about 2 different approaches for creating a web service from above. Then (a) compare the two approaches and (b) explain 2 advantages of each approach relative to the other. ... continue reading.

Research Problem Only one page. RP 6 The morning of January 1, 2009 brought a chill to the Tampa Bay area. Cold air from Canada sank south to remind Flor

Research Problem Only one page. RP 6 The morning of January 1, 2009 brought a chill to the Tampa Bay area. Cold air from Canada sank south to remind Floridians that winter does bring cold temperatures to some. Sammy Spartan was driving east that morning along Highway 60 headed to one of his favorite golf resorts, Streamsong. The resort, constructed in the shell of abandoned phosphate mines is a world class golf facility located in the middle of Florida. Along the way Sammy took in the fragrant aromas of the citrus farms lining the highway. Those smells brought back memories of Sammy’s grandfather and happy summer days spent on his grandad’s citrus farm in Central Florida. Sammy was (and is) the owner of Spartan Materials, LLC. This successful business operates two plants in the Tampa port area recycling vehicle parts and batteries then fabricating new and reconditioned parts. While the business started small, Spartan Materials employs nearly 100 people and, although it is a thin margin business, consistently reports annual income of between $800,000 and $1,500,000. Sammy has prospered through hard work building the business. Time records indicate that Sammy spends between 20 and 50 hours a week on Spartan Materials, LLC. During his drive back to his home in Avila after a less than satisfying round of golf at Streamsong Sammy happened to see a for sale by owner sign along the road. Sammy stopped and took down the information. A citrus farm owner nearing retirement was attempting to sell his 200-acre farm. Fresh from a poor round of golf and intoxicated by the memories of his long-ago youth, Sammy decided to give up golf and made an offer to purchase the citrus farm. The offer was accepted after a bit of negotiation and Sammy became the proud owner of a 200-acre citrus farm. Three years later when an adjacent tract become available Sammy added 120 acres to the farm bringing the total acreage to 320. Over the next ten years a series of freezes, two devastating occurrences of citrus greening (a disease that kills citrus trees) and a tree clearing hurricane took their toll on the citrus farm. Sammy spends at least three days a week working the farm mending fences, planting, fertilizing, trimming and caring for the trees. Sammy kept meticulous records of his expenses, unfortunately, there were few oranges to harvest and significant losses were reported from the citrus farm each year on his tax return. Those losses helped reduce Sammy’s taxable income from Spartan Materials since Sammy claimed that both Spartan Materials and the citrus farm were activities engaged in for profit. Sammy’s time records showed that he spent more than 1,200 hours a year personally working on the farm. His time records at Spartan Materials LLC showed he spent more than 1,200 hours a year personally working at the headquarters of Spartan Materials LLC. The IRS examined Sammy’s 2018 and 2019 tax returns and disallowed the losses ($75,000 in 2018 and $82,000 in 2019) from the citrus farm. While Sammy produced detailed records of revenue and expenses from both the citrus and materials operations, the IRS noted that he had no formal business plan for either business, did not form a separate entity for the farm operation, never advertised his citrus products, did not purchase crop insurance for the citrus grove but did purchase business interruption insurance for the materials company and did not hire any advisors to assist him in either enterprise. The IRS asserted that Sammy’s activities of mending fences, planting trees, fertilizing soils, trimming trees and related activities on the farm brought him substantial personal pleasure. The IRS contended that the citrus farm was not entered into with the intention of making a profit. Sammy argued that he always intended on making a profit and that a series of unfortunate and unprecedented events combined to negatively impact the citrus business. Sammy noted that no advertising would help him sell oranges that did not exist and that he had never had a business plan in any business. He further noted that advisors would have only added to the losses caused by disease and weather. Sammy also provided industry statistics from the University of Gator’s Citrus Institute showing that the entire industry had experienced losses for the past ten years largely from the freezes, greening and storms. Rather than journey home each night, Sammy eventually bought a second hand trailer to sleep in while working on the farm, it was not very nice. Sammy’s wife, Sally, refused to set foot in the trailer. Sammy responded vigorously to the IRS’ allegations noting that he kept good records of expenses, that there is a market for citrus – if he could ever produce a crop, that he worked the land himself three or four days a week (he produced time records to substantiate his work and a record of not playing any more golf), attendance at the University of Gator’s “Citrus College” continuing education programs and memberships and attendance at the Florida Citrus Association’s meetings. Sammy also commissioned an expert report from a UG professor to support his claims of intent to make a profit. The expert report indicated that Sammy had done just about everything to make a successful citrus farm but bad luck, citrus greening, a hurricane and timing had prevented his success in the farm venture. Sammy noted that while he did derive some satisfaction from the physical labor on the farm, the fact that others engaged in this activity on neighboring farms were paid to do the same kind of work mitigated against calling this a pleasure activity. Sammy offered the IRS representatives the chance “to derive personal pleasure” tending to the citrus crops, none of the IRS representatives were interested in that kind of fun. Sammy’s affidavit in support of his position noted that “this is a farm, not a fishing boat”, its real work out there.” The IRS disallowed Sammy’s deductions for losses on the citrus farm on his tax returns. Sammy paid the taxes, interest and penalties then sued in US District Court for the Middle District of Florida seeking a refund. Who prevails? (and more importantly, why) ... continue reading.

Two Responses Please answer TWO of the following questions. You have until Friday, 11:20pm(tonight) to complete the assignment . It is important to show co

Two Responses Please answer TWO of the following questions. You have until Friday, 11:20pm(tonight) to complete the assignment . It is important to show command of not only the subject but of the readings that informs your analysis/response word count 500 per each answer. YOU HAVE TO USE THE TWO FOLLOWING SOURCES IN ORDER TO ANSWER THE TWO QUESTIONS.   Latin American Politics (Required)   Modern Latin America, 9th edition (Required)  Explain the causes and consequences of Bureaucratic-Authoritarianism in Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. Use one of the countries as an example to drill down or elaborate analytically on this type of military regime. Analyze two examples during the Cold War where the United States influenced political outcomes in Latin America. Be sure to explain the causes and consequences for each. Regardless of specific case, explain some of the common drivers/causes of successful revolutions in Latin America. It will be useful if you use some of the cases discussed in the course (Mexico, Cuba, and Nicaragua) to highlight those drivers. ... continue reading.

Marketing Exam Due in 24 hours. Two Tasks Through digitalisation, societies around the world are characterised by ever-increasing connectivity. Supported b

Marketing Exam Due in 24 hours. Two Tasks Through digitalisation, societies around the world are characterised by ever-increasing connectivity. Supported by technologically networked communication, connectivity is not only a technological phenomenon, but also a socio-cultural one. The permanent possibility of networking is changing consumers’ lifestyles and behaviour patterns. For example, online marketplaces and platforms or the exchange of consumers on rating portals are becoming increasingly important. Companies must react to these developments with their marketing strategies and activities. Analyse the impact of connectivity on marketing using an example company. For this purpose, work on the two tasks (with sub-items) listed on the following pages. Evaluation criteria Fit and uniqueness of the article Consistency of content of marked text passages and topics/concepts mentioned in comments Specificity of the annotated topics (“extension of the programme breadth” instead of “product programme”) Quality of theoretical explanation and expressed depth of understanding of the topics explained Quality of the transfer of the topics to the corporate context in the article Own, comprehensible conclusions in the statement Reasonableness of the recommendation for further action and quality of the argumentation in the explanatory statement Correct spelling and grammar, linguistic expression Adherence to the format requirements Format specifications: Submission of this document as a PDF file (named: “Name, FirstName_Title of Examination_Editing”), the correct display and visibility of your entries and comments in the PDF file is your responsibility. Margins: top: 2.5 cm; bottom: 2 cm; left: 2.5 cm; right: 2.5 cm; Times New Roman, font size 12 Line spacing 1.5 lines, justified, paragraph: special indent first line (1.25 cm) The text form fields provided for this purpose are to be used for the answers. The format specifications are already preset in these fields, but without guarantee. Therefore, when submitting your answers, please make sure that you have complied with the requirements. Task 1 of 2 (40 subject points): Article and topic identification Select a digitally available article (in German or English, suitable blog entries, articles from weekly magazines, scientific articles etc. are also possible, possibly articles behind a pay barrier, e.g. if they can be found in the archive of a renowned daily newspaper) that describes marketing-related approaches of a company with regard to connectivity. Enter the source of the article in the corresponding text field. Then copy the plain text of the article into the text field provided for this purpose. You will find both text fields on the next page. Please remove pictures, advertisements and the like. Use the comment function to mark at least six different topics covered in the “Marketing” module. To do this, please mark the relevant text section with your comment and simply enter the relevant topic in the comment field. Regardless of the language of the selected article, please label the identified topics in German.(use English to write and make it highlight I will translate German by myself) Please name the topics as specifically as you can with the information provided in the article (e.g.: “change in programme depth” instead of “product programme”). However, an overall topic such as “product policy” is too broad in any case. Please note that the naming of superordinate and subordinate topics only counts once. A mention of both “innovation management” and “concept definition” would thus only be counted as one topic. Please ensure that among the identified topics, at least two topics belong to strategic marketing and at least two topics belong to operational marketing. It is up to you to find and select a suitable article! If you cannot identify a sufficient number of topics in the corresponding article, then vary the keywords of your search if necessary and select another article. The following illustration should serve as an example for a possible implementation of the commentary. Figure 1: Exemplary marking of topics; Source: Sinnwell, 2021, Handelsblatt, 11.06.2021; https://www.handelsblatt.com/unternehmen/handel-konsumgueter/einzelhandel-mymuesli-schliesst-fast-alle-laeden-und-macht-trotz-corona-gewinn/27278940.html retrieved on: 17.06.2021. Please indicate the source of your article here: . Please copy the text of your selected article below and mark the identified marketing topics. Please pay attention to the format requirements mentioned above. If necessary, the paste option “Copy text only” will help you to keep the preset formatting. Please copy the text of the article here into this text field and then mark the identified topics with comments. Task 2 of 2 (60 subject points): Explanation, opinion and recommendation a) (30 subject points) Concisely explain the issues identified in task 1) from a theoretical perspective and then place them meaningfully in the context of your chosen company given by the article. Make sure that at least two of the topics used belong to strategic marketing and two to operational marketing. The selected article and the lecture materials (including the recommended reading and the exercise) are sufficient as sources when answering the question. You do not have to do any research beyond that. You have a maximum of 600 words in total for the explanations. Enter your answer in the text box below. Please pay attention to the format requirements mentioned above and mark the identified topics in bold. Please enter your answer for task 2a) here b) (20 subject points) Write a statement on the effectiveness of the marketing approach of your chosen company. For this, discuss the topics explained in task 2a) with regard to the marketing objectives you know from the lecture. For this purpose, consider the potential-related, as well as the market success-related and economic marketing objectives. You have a maximum of 350 words for your statement. Enter your answer in the text field below and pay attention to the format requirements mentioned above. Please enter your answer for task 2b) here. c) (10 subject points) Think of another strategic or operational marketing measure from the lecture, not yet mentioned in the article, which you would recommend to the company in the corresponding context. First, briefly name and explain your measure and then justify your recommendation. You have a maximum of 150 words to answer the question. Enter your answer in the text field below and pay attention to the format requirements mentioned above. Please enter your answer for task 2c) here. ... continue reading.

Write chapter one summary Can you write chapter one summary? 2The Dental Hygienist’s Guide to Nutritional Care5TH EDITIONCynthia A. Stegeman, RDH,

Write chapter one summary Can you write chapter one summary? 2 The Dental Hygienist’s Guide to Nutritional Care 5TH EDITION Cynthia A. Stegeman, RDH, EdD, RDN, LD, CDE Ohio Delegate to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics National Board Dental Hygiene Examination Test Construction Committee Commission on Dental Competency Assessments Consultant Professor and Chairperson, Dental Hygiene Program University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash Cincinnati, Ohio Judi Ratliff Davis, MS, RDN Former Quality Assurance Nutrition Consultant Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program Texas Department of State Health Services Austin, Texas 3 4 Table of Contents Cover image Title Page Reference Tables Copyright Dedication Preface New to This Edition Organization About Evolve Note From the Authors Acknowledgments About the Authors Part I Orientation to Basic Nutrition 1 Overview of Healthy Eating Habits Basic Nutrition Physiologic Functions of Nutrients Basic Concepts of Nutrition Government Nutrition Concerns 5 kindle:embed:0006?mime=image/jpg Nutrient Recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes Food Guidance System for Americans Support Healthy Eating Patterns for All MyPlate System Other Food Guides Nutrition Labeling Student Readiness References 2 Concepts in Biochemistry What is Biochemistry? Fundamentals of Biochemistry Principle Biomolecules in Nutrition Summary of Metabolism Student Readiness References 3 The Alimentary Canal Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract Oral Cavity Esophagus Gastric Digestion Small Intestine Large Intestine Student Readiness References 4 Carbohydrate 6 Classification Physiologic Roles Requirements Sources Hyperstates and Hypostates Nonnutritive Sweeteners/Sugar Substitutes Student Readiness References 5 Protein Amino Acids Classification Physiologic Roles Requirements Sources Underconsumption and Health-Related Problems Overconsumption and Health-Related Problems Student Readiness References 6 Lipids Classification Chemical Structure Characteristics of Fatty Acids Compound Lipids Cholesterol Physiologic Roles 7 Dietary Fats and Dental Health Dietary Requirements Sources Overconsumption and Health-Related Problems Underconsumption and Health-Related Problems Fat Replacers Student Readiness References 7 Use of the Energy Nutrients Metabolism Role of the Liver Role of the Kidneys Carbohydrate Metabolism Protein Metabolism Lipid Metabolism Alcohol Metabolism Metabolic Interrelationships Metabolic Energy Basal Metabolic Rate Total Energy Requirements Energy Balance Inadequate Energy Intake Student Readiness References 8 Vitamins Required for Calcified Structures 8 Overview of Vitamins Vitamin A (Retinol, Carotene) Vitamin D (Calciferol) Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Vitamin K (Quinone) Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Student Readiness References 9 Minerals Essential for Calcified Structures Bone Mineralization and Growth Formation of Teeth Introduction to Minerals Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Fluoride Student Readiness References 10 Nutrients Present in Calcified Structures Copper Selenium Chromium Manganese Molybdenum Ultratrace Elements 9 Student Readiness References 11 Vitamins Required for Oral Soft Tissues and Salivary Glands Physiology of Soft Tissues Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Niacin (Vitamin B3) Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Folate/Folic Acid (Vitamin B9) Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Biotin (Vitamin B7) Other Vitamins Student Readiness References 12 Fluids and Minerals Required for Oral Soft Tissues and Salivary Glands Fluids References Electrolytes Sodium Chloride Potassium Iron Zinc 10 Iodine Student Readiness References Part II Application of Nutrition Principles 13 Nutritional Requirements Affecting Oral Health in Women Healthy Pregnancy Lactation Oral Contraceptive Agents Menopause Student Readiness References 14 Nutritional Requirements During Growth and Development and Eating Habits Affecting Oral Health Infants Children Older Than 2 Years of Age: Dietary Guidelines 2015–2020 and Healthy People 2020 Utilizing the ChooseMyPlate Website Toddler and Preschool Children Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Children With Special Needs School-Age Children (7–12 Years Old) Adolescents Student Readiness References 15 Nutritional Requirements for Older Adults and Eating Habits Affecting Oral Health 11 General Health Status Physiologic Factors Influencing Nutritional Needs and Status Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors Nutrient Requirements Eating Patterns Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate for Older Adults Student Readiness References 16 Food Factors Affecting Health Health Care Disparities Food Patterns Working With Patients With Different Food Patterns Food Budgets Maintaining Optimal Nutrition During Food Preparation Food Fads and Misinformation Referrals for Nutritional Resources Role of Dental Hygienists Student Readiness References 17 Effects of Systemic Disease on Nutritional Status and Oral Health Effects of Chronic Disease on Intake Anemias Other Hematologic Disorders Gastrointestinal Problems Cardiovascular Conditions 12 Skeletal System Metabolic Problems Neuromuscular Problems Neoplasia Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Mental Health Problems Student Readiness References Part III Nutritional Aspects of Oral Health 18 Nutritional Aspects of Dental Caries Major Factors in the Dental Caries Process Other Factors Influencing Cariogenicity Dental Hygiene Care Plan Student Readiness References 19 Nutritional Aspects of Gingivitis and Periodontal Disease Physical Effects of Food on Periodontal Health Nutritional Considerations for Periodontal Patients Gingivitis Chronic Periodontitis Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases Student Readiness References 20 Nutritional Aspects of Alterations in the Oral Cavity 13 Orthodontics Xerostomia Root Caries and Dentin Hypersensitivity Dentition Status Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Loss of Alveolar Bone Glossitis Temporomandibular Disorder Student Readiness References 21 Nutritional Assessment and Education for Dental Patients Evaluation of the Patient Assessment of Nutritional Status Identification of Nutritional Status Formation of Nutrition Treatment Plan Facilitative Communication Skills Student Readiness References Glossary Answers to Nutritional Quotient Questions Index IBC 14 15 Reference Tables Criteria and Dietary Reference Intake Values: For Energy by Active Individuals by Life Stage Groupa Life Stage Group Criterion ACTIVE PAL EERb (kcal/d) Male Female 0 through 6 mo Energy expenditure plus energy deposition 570 520 (3 mo) 7 through 12 mo Energy expenditure plus energy deposition 743 676 (9 mo) 1 through 2 y Energy expenditure plus energy deposition 1,046 992 (24 mo) 3 through 8 y Energy expenditure plus energy deposition 1,742 1,642 (6 y) 9 through 13 y Energy expenditure plus energy deposition 2,279 2,071 (11 y) 14 through 18 y Energy expenditure plus energy deposition 3,152 2,368 (16 y) >18 y Energy expenditure 3,067c 2,403c (19 y) Pregnancy 14 through 18 y Adolescent female EER plus change in Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) plus pregnancy energy deposition 1st trimester 2,368 (16 y) 2nd trimester 2,708 (16 y) 3rd trimester 2,820 (16 y) 19 through 50 y Adult female EER plus change in TEE plus pregnancy energy deposition 1st trimester 2,403c (19 y) 2nd trimester 2,743c (19 y) 3rd trimester 2,855c (19 y) Lactation 14 through 18 y Adolescent female EER plus milk energy output minus w eight loss 1st 6 mo 2,698 (16 y) 2nd 6 mo 2,768 (16 y) 19 through 50 y Adult female EER plus milk energy output minus w eight loss 1st 6 mo 2,733c (19 y) 2nd 6 mo 2,803c (19 y) aFor healthy active Americans and Canadians. Based on the cited age, an active physical activity level, and the reference heights and weights cited in Table 1.1. Individualized EERs can be determined by using the equations in Chapter 5. bPAL = Physical Activity Level, EER = Estimated Energy Requirement. The intake that meets the average energy expenditure of individuals at the reference height, weight, and 16 age (see Table 1.1). cSubtract 10 kcal/d for males and 7 kcal/d for females for each year of age above 19 years. Reproduced with permission from Energy Calculations for Active Individuals by Life Stage Group. In Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Total Water, and Macronutrients (Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Medicine) Life Stage Group Total Water (L/d) PROTEIN CARBOHYDRATE FIBER FAT n-6 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (α- linoleic acid) n POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (α- linoleic acid) RDA/AI g/daya AMDRb RDA/AI g/day AMDR b RDA/AI g/day AMDR b RDA/AI g/day AMDR b RDA/AI g/day AMDR b Infants 0–6 mo 0.7* 9.1 NDc 60 ND ND ND 31 4.4* ND 7–12 mo 0.8* 11.0 ND 95 ND ND ND 30 4.6* ND Children 1–3 y 1.3* 13 5–20 130 45–65 19* ND ND 30–40 7* 5–10 4–8 y 1.7* 19 10–30 130 45–65 25* ND ND 25–35 10* 5–10 Males 9–13 y 2.4* 34 10–30 130 45–65 31* ND ND 25–35 12* 5–10 14–18 y 3.3* 52 10–30 130 45–65 38* ND ND 25–35 16* 5–10 19–30 y 3.7* 56 10–35 130 45–65 38* ND ND 20–35 17* 5–10 31–50 y 3.7* 56 10–35 130 45–65 38* ND ND 20–35 17* 5–10 51–70 y 3.7* 56 10–35 130 45–65 30* ND ND 20–35 14* 5–10 >70 y 3.7* 56 10–35 130 45–65 30* ND ND 20–35 14* 5–10 Females 9–13 y 2.1* 34 10–30 130 45–65 26* ND ND 25–35 10* 5–10 14–18 y 2.3* 46 10–30 130 45–65 26* ND ND 25–35 11* 5–10 19–30 y 3.7* 46 10–35 130 45–65 25* ND ND 20–35 12* 5–10 31–50 y 3.7* 46 10–35 130 45–65 25* ND ND 20–35 12* 5–10 51–70 y 3.7* 46 10–35 130 45–65 21* ND ND 20–35 11* 5–10 >70 y 3.7* 46 10–35 130 45–65 21* ND ND 20–35 11* 5–10 Pregnant ≤18 y 3.0* 71 10–35 175 45–65 28* ND ND 20–35 13* 5–10 19–30 y 3.0* 71 10–35 175 45–65 28* ND ND 20–35 13* 5–10 31–50 y 3.0* 71 10–35 175 45–65 28* ND ND 20–35 13* 5–10 Lactating ≤18 y 3.8* 71 10–35 210 45–65 29* ND ND 20–35 13* 5–10 17 19–30 y 3.8* 71 10–35 210 45–65 29* ND ND 20–35 13* 5–10 31–50 y 3.8* 71 10–35 210 45–65 29* ND ND 20–35 13* 5–10 aBased on 1.5 g/kg/day for infants, 1.1 g/kg/day for 1–3 y; 0.95 g/kg/day for 4–13 y, 0.85 g/kg/day for 14–18 y, 0.8 g/kg/day for adults, and 1.1 g/kg/day for pregnant (using prepregnancy weight) and lactating women. bAcceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) is the range of intake for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing intakes of essential nutrients. If an individual has consumed in excess of the AMDR, there is a potential of increasing the risk of chronic diseases and insufficient intakes of essential nutrients. cND 5 Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. dApproximately 10% of the total can come from longer-chain, n-3 fatty acids. Dietary cholesterol, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids: As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. Added sugars: Limit to no more than 25% of total energy.e Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2002. Note: This table represents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and *Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97%–98%) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data prevents being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins (Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Medicine) Life Stage Group Vitamin A (µg/d)a Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (µg/d)b,c Vitamin E (mg/d)d Vitamin K (µg/d) Thiamin (mg/d) Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)e Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (µg/d)f Vitamin B12 (µg/d) Pantothenic Acid (mg/d) Infants 0–6 mo 400* 40* 13 4* 2.0* 0.2* 0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 1.7* 7–12 mo 500* 50* 15 5* 2.5* 0.3* 0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 1.8* Children 1–3 y 300 15 15 6 30* 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 2* 4–8 y 400 25 15 7 55* 0.6 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 3* Males 9–13 y 600 45 15 11 60* 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 14–18 900 75 15 15 75* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 18 y 19–30 y 900 90 15 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 31–50 y 900 90 15 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 51–70 y 900 90 15 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4h 5* >70 y 900 90 20 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4h 5* Females 9–13 y 600 45 15 11 60* 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 14–18 y 700 65 15 15 75* 1.0 1.0 14 1.2 400i 2.4 5* 19–30 y 700 75 15 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400i 2.4 5* 31–50 y 700 75 15 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400i 2.4 5* 51–70 y 700 75 15 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4h 5* >70 y 700 75 20 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4h 5* Pregnancy 14–18 y 750 80 15 15 75* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600j 2.6 6* 19–30 y 770 85 15 15 90* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600j 2.6 6* 31–50 y 770 85 15 15 90* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600j 2.6 6* Lactation 14–18 y 1,200 115 15 19 75* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 19–30 y 1,300 120 15 19 90* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 31–50 y 1,300 120 15 19 90* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 µg retinol, 12 µg β-carotene, 24 µg β- carotene, or 24 µg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is twofold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE. bAs cholecalciferol. 1 µg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D. cUnder the assumption of minimal sunlight. dAs α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α- tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements. eAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE). fAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. gAlthough AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages. 19 hBecause 10% to 30% of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12. iIn view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet. jIt is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 µg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube. NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports; see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level; sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR for calculating an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breastfed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu. 20 http://www.nap.edu http://www.nap.edu Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements (Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Medicine) Life-Stage Group Calcium (mg/d) Chromium (µg/d) Copper (µg/d) Fluoride (mg/d) Iodine (µg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d) Infants 0–6 mo 200* 0.2* 200* 0.01* 110* 0.27* 30* 7–12 mo 260* 5.5* 220* 0.5* 130* 11 75* Children 1–3 y 700* 11* 340 0.7* 90 7 80 4–8 y 1000* 15* 440 1* 90 10 130 Males 9–13 y 1,300* 25* 700 2* 120 8 240 14–18 y 1,300* 35* 890 3* 150 11 410 19–30 y 1,000* 35* 900 4* 150 8 400 31–50 y 1,000* 35* 900 4* 150 8 420 51–70 y 1,200* 30* 900 4* 150 8 420 >70 y 1,200* 30* 900 4* 150 8 420 Females 9–13 y 1,300* 21* 700 2* 120 8 240 14–18 y 1,300* 24* 890 3* 150 15 360 19–30 y 1,000* 25* 900 3* 150 18 310 31–50 y 1,000* 25* 900 3* 150 18 320 51–70 y 1,200* 20* 900 3* 150 8 320 >70 y 1,200* 20* 900 3* 150 8 320 Pregnancy ≤18 y 1,300* 29* 1,000 3* 220 27 400 19–30 y 1,000* 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 350 31–50 y 1,000* 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 360 Lactation ≤18 y 1,300* 11* 1,300 3* 290 10 360 19–30 y 1,000* 15* 1,300 3* 290 9 310 31–50 y 1,000* 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 320 Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Average Requirements (Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Medicine) Life Stage- Group Calcium (mg/d) CHO (g/kg/d) Protein (g/d) Vitamin A (µg/d)a Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (µg/d) Vitamin E (mg/d)b Thiamin (mg/d) Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)c Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Infants 0–6 21 http://www.nap.edu mo 7–12 mo 1.0 Children 1–3 y 500 100 0.87 210 13 10 5 0.4 0.4 5 0.4 4–8 y 800 100 0.76 275 22 10 6 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 Males 9–13 y 1,100 100 0.76 445 39 10 9 0.7 0.8 9 0.8 14–18 y 1,100 100 0.73 630 63 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 19–30 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 31–50 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 51–70 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.4 >70 y 1,000 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.4 Females 9–13 y 1,100 100 0.76 420 39 10 9 0.7 0.8 9 0.8 14–18 y 1,100 100 0.71 485 56 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.0 19–30 y 800 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 31–50 y 800 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 51–70 y 1,000 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.3 >70 y 1,000 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.3 Pregnancy 14–18 y 1,000 135 0.88 530 66 10 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 19–30 y 800 135 0.88 550 70 10 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 31–50 y 800 135 0.88 550 70 10 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 Lactation 14–18 y 1,000 160 1.05 885 96 10 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 19–30 y 800 160 1.05 900 100 10 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 31–50 y 800 160 1.05 900 100 10 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 µg retinol, 12 µg β-carotene, 24 µg α- carotene, or 24 µg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two- fold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE. bAs α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α- tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements. cAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan. dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. 22 Note: An Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of the healthv individuals in a group. EARs have not been established for vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, chromium, fluoride, manganese, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins (Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Medicine) Life- Stage Group Vitamin A (µg/d)a Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (µg/d) Vitamin E (mg/d)b,c Vitamin K Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin (mg/d)c Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (µg/d)c Vitamin B12 Infants 0–6 mo 600 NDe 25 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 7–12 mo 600 ND 38 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND Children 1–3 y 600 400 63 200 ND ND ND 10 30 300 ND 4–8 y 900 650 75 300 ND ND ND 15 40 400 ND Males 9–13 y 1,700 1,200 100 600 ND ND ND 20 60 600 ND 14–18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND 19–30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 31–50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 51–70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND >70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND Females 9–13 y 1,700 1,200 100 600 ND ND ND 20 60 600 ND 14–18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND 19–30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 31–50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 51–70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND >70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND Pregnancy 14–18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND 19–30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 31–50 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 23 http://www.nap.edu y Lactation 14–18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND 19–30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 31–50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND aAs preformed vitamin A only. bAs α–tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental α–tocopherol. cThe ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two. dβ-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency. eND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. Note: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements (Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Medicine) Life- Stage Group Arsenica Boron (mg/d) Calcium (mg/d) Chromium Copper (µg/d) Fluoride (mg/d) Iodine (µg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d)b Manganese (mg/d) Molybdenum (µg/d) Infants 0–6 mo NDe ND 1,000 ND ND 0.7 ND 40 ND ND ND 7–12 mo ND ND 1,500 ND ND 0.9 ND 40 ND ND ND Children 24 http://www.nap.edu 1–3 y ND 3 2,500 ND 1,000 1.3 200 40 65 2 300 4–8 y ND 6 2,500 ND 3,000 2.2 300 40 110 3 600 Males 9–13 y ND 11 3,000 ND 5,000 10 600 40 350 6 1,100 14–18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9 1,700 19–30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 31–50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 51–70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 >70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 Females 9–13 y ND 11 3,000 ND 5,000 10 600 40 350 6 1,100 14–18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9 1,700 19–30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 31–50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 51–70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 >70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 Pregnancy 14–18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9 1,700 19–30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 31–50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 Lactation 14–18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9 1,700 19–30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 31–50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 aAlthough the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic … ... continue reading.

Religion Why, according to Jeremiah 7, is God angry at the people of Judah? Drawing on the assigned secondary reading by Avioz, speculate on why it is sig

Religion Why, according to Jeremiah 7, is God angry at the people of Judah? Drawing on the assigned secondary reading by Avioz, speculate on why it is significant that Jeremiah conveys God’s anger at the temple. Turning to Jeremiah 27-28, why is the prophet Hananiah furious at Jeremiah and what does he (Hananiah) do as a result? “I Sat Alone” Jeremiah Among the Prophets MICHAEL AYIOZ T 1 6) r i s 2009 First Gorgias Press Edition, 2009 Copyright © 2009 by Gorgias Press LLC All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a re­ trieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechani­ cal, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC. Published in the United States of America by Gorgias Press LLC, New Jersey ISBN: 978-1-59333-854-1 T i (j) r s An Imprint of GORGIAS PRESS 180 Centennial Ave., Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA Library- of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Avioz, Michael, 1967- [Nevu’ato shel Yirmeyahu. English] I sat alone : Jeremiah among the prophets / Michael Av­ ioz. — 1st Gorgias Press ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-59333-854-1 (alk. paper) 1. Jeremiah (Biblical prophet) 2. Bible. O.T. Jeremiah- -Criticism, interpretation, etc. I. Title. BS580.J4A9513 2009 224′.206–dc22 2009001234 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standards. 4 JEREMIAH’S TEMPLE SERMON Jeremiah’s speech in the Temple (Jeremiah 7:1-15) is one of the most im­ pressive in the 1 Iebrew Bible. In his book, Zeev Weisman writes the follow­ ing. The canonical prophets’ charismatic test lay not so much in whether they succeeded in predicting the future, but in whether they possessed the proficiency and power with which to persuade their audience of the truth of their messages. In the same vein as Weisman, I will attempt to show that research written on the subject of rhetoric can make a significant contribution to understanding Jeremiah’s speech in the Temple. What were the historical and societal conditions leading to Jeremiah’s Temple speech? What is the message of the speech? By what means does Jeremiah transmit his message, with the aim of persuading his audience? It seems that two specific groups were of special interest in Jeremiah’s speech: a. The reference to the Ten Commandments and to Shiloh implies the priests, whose job it is to teach the people how to observe the Ten Commandments (sec, for example Deut. 17:9-12; 33:10; Jer. 2:8; 18:18; Ezek. 7:26; IIos. 5:1; Mai. 2:7; 2 Chr. 15:3). Since they failed in their duties, they deserved to be censured, a task that the true prophets take upon them­ selves. According to the description in 1 Sam. 2, Eli’s sons, the priests, were responsible for the destruction of Shiloh. The priests’ abuse of their posi­ tion in Jeremiah’s time likewise threatens to cause the destruction of Jerusa­ lem. Jeremiah is particularly entitled to prophecy this, as according to the first verse of the book (Jer. 1:1), he himself was from a priestly family. He knows very well how a priest is supposed to behave, and is therefore in a position to judge. b. Jeremiah appears to be addressing a second group—the false prophets—in his speech. ‘ITiey are indicated by the expression “we are saved” and by use of the word “falsehood”. The use of slogans implies the false prophets. The fact that the prophets and the priests were Jeremiah’s 21 22 I Sat Alone leading accusers in the story of his trial in chapter 26 is also an indication that they understood Jeremiah’s words perfectly. If Jeremiah’s speech was indeed made in 609/8 BCE, as many scholars suppose, then it goes without saying that the effect created thereby was fear. It was a particularly difficult year for the people of Judah, a year of turmoil: the death of josiah, followed by his replacement by two more kings, Jehoa- haz and jehoiakim. judah came under Egyptian rule and the people sought comfort and security in the Temple. Jeremiah’s role, then, was to under­ mine the peoples’ sense of calm and security. This period was a fertile one for the false prophets to espouse their ideologies and to gain popularity among the masses. It is in this troubled period that Jeremiah had to stand strong and go out against these prophets. The Arrangement of the Material In contrast to Isaiah 1, wherein grave accusations are brought against the people in the introduction, Jeremiah opens the body of his speech on a positive note: “Amend your ways and your doings, and let me dwell with you in this place” (v. 3). This positive attitude is part of Jeremiah’s ethos: He is genuinely concerned with the destinv of Israel, and he makes efforts to save them from error. Jeremiah 7 is a classic call for repentance, a change of direction. In­ deed, the Land of Israel belongs to the people of Israel according to the promise made to their forefathers, yet their dwelling therein is conditional: In every generation, the people have to prove that they are worthy of the Land, and should therefore take care that the Temple does not become a source of illusion, or a stumbling block for Israel. Later on, Jeremiah states that society has a moral obligation toward its members, and is therefore required to make improvements. From a rhetorical point of view, Jeremiah begins by moving from the general to the particular, and then returns to the general in his speech’s conclusion. When Jeremiah sees no positive response from the audience, he ratch­ ets up his tone. He abandons all pretenses and expresses the full severity of his words. While he begins his speech in a positive tone, when this tack re­ ceives no response, he moves on to a description of his people’s terrifying position. Evidence for this can be found in his speech (v. 13): “When I spoke to you persistently, you did not listen”. Jeremiah is now wearing the “hat” of the prosecution in court. He pre­ sents the charges to the people followed by the consequences should they be found guilty. Jeremiah pleads that the people’s negative behavior consti- 4 Jeremiah’s Temple Sermon 23 tutes a violation of the binding legal document that lays down the terms of the relationship between the people of Israel and God: the Ten Com­ mandments. The Ten Commandments are defined as a covenant, a contract between Israel and God on Mount Sinai (Exodus 19-20), which obligates both sides. If the people break their part of the agreement, then God will commensuratelv break His. Jeremiah refers to the Ten Commandments in a different order from diat in the Hebrew Bible. In Exodus 20, die religious commandments come first, and the social commandments come afterwards. Jeremiah, however, starts by presenting the social commandments. Martin Buber explains the significance of this: the sins against religion come at the end (as in v. 6), because the prophet has to proclaim just this, that God seeks something other than religion. Out of a human community He wills to make his king­ dom; communitv there must be in order that 1 lis kingdom shall come; therefore here, where he blames a people for not having become a commu­ nity, man’s claim upon man takes precedence of God’s claim. According to Buber, the moral commandments occupy a more impor­ tant position within the prophet’s value system. I lowever, Bubcr’s opinion seems not to fit the Book of Jeremiah, which names idolatry as the main cause of the destruction of the Temple. Thus reads Jer. 9:12-14, for exam­ ple: Who is wise enough to understand this? To whom has the mouth of the LORD spoken, so that they may declare it? Why is the land mined and laid waste like a wilderness, so that no one passes through? And the LORD says: Because they have forsaken My law that I set before them, and have not obeyed My voice, or walked in accordance with it, but have stubbornly followed their own hearts and have gone after the Baals, as their ancestors taught them (see also Jer. 5:10-11, 16, 18). What is special about Jeremiah’s words is that he raises the position of social ethics to the level of an additional basic condition for the existence of the nation in its land, in contrast to the viewpoint that sees the Temple sac­ rifices as the essence. Apart from that, the distinction between “man’s claim” and “God’s claim” is a problem. The Hebrew’ Bible makes a connec­ tion between sins against man and sins against God. “Thou shalt not com­ mit adulter}'” is not only a sin against man, but also a sin against God. The same is the case with “Thou shalt not murder”. We see from here that pro­ gression is incorporated within Jeremiah’s words. In v. 3-5, we follow Jeremiah’s move from the general to the particu­ lar. Now we see the progression from the (relatively) light to the serious. 24 I Sat Alone Jeremiah wishes to tell his audience: Not only have you sinned in a moral context, but you have also dared to commit the greatest sin of all—idolatry. Citations and Refutation Jeremiah quotes his antagonists, the false prophets: “The Temple of the LORD, The Temple of the LORD, The Temple of the LORD”, (v. 4) and again, “we are saved” (v. 10). Presendng the false prophets’ words as mere slogans enables Jeremiah’s audience to discern the untruths, as they ask themselves, “What is the basis for this person’s statements?” Moreover, one definition of falsehood is: words spoken with the inten­ tion of creating an erroneous belief or understanding among the audience, by using half-truths and/or delivering partial information. From the words •3*7 pi^C’to vour own harm”, v. 6), it can be understood that Jeremiah believes that words are being spoken by the false prophets, who are aware of their being partially or completely incorrect. Although it is quite likely that Jeremiah is referring to beliefs regarding Jerusalem’s immunity, which developed during Sennacherib’s campaign to Judah (2 Kings 18-20 / Isaiah 36-39), Jeremiah only hints at this belief by using 1 Iebrew words with the roots TOU (“trust”) and (“save; rescue”). An explicit mention of the story of Jerusalem’s deliverance is likely to con­ ceal Jeremiah’s intenuon of presenting Jerusalem as vulnerable to the en­ emy. The use of first person plural (“We are delivered”, JPS; “We are safe”, NRSV) is also deliberate. Jeremiah does not say, “God has saved us”, but rather, “we are delivered”. In other words, he disconnects God from the slogans created by his antagonists. The word was apparently a slogan regularly used by the false prophets. Various scholars who have dealt with the subject of falsehood have noted that the aspiration to popularity must be included in the motives for lying. Belief in falsehood stems from the false prophets’ authority in the eyes of the people, and from the comfort the latter derive from the optimis­ tic message. In chapter 7, Jeremiah speaks out against such beliefs, and in doing so must contend with prophecies that were particularly popular. Such prophe­ cies were given by prophets claiming to be God’s messengers, representing the Zion Tradition. This ideology seeks to highlight God’s unconditional commitment to Jerusalem and to the Temple, thus releasing the people from their commitment to God. According to Jeremiah, there is no guaran- 4 Jeremiah’s Temple Sermon 25 tee that the Temple will be saved, as it is not independent of earlier prom­ ises, but rather conditioned on the behavior of the people. Will Jeremiah succeed in achieving the impossible and persuading the people that his cause is just? Jeremiah needs to persuade those gathered at die Temple that it is indeed an important place, and before coming to pray diere, or to offer sacrifices, they must make sure that their hands are clean and must mend their ways. Otherwise, they have no business there, and no sacrifice will serve as insurance against enemies who try to conquer the city. It appears that Jeremiah did not intend to speak against the legitimacy of the Temple as such; rather, his intention was to shock the people and spur them into action. Other prophets worked in a similar way. Neither did they speak out against the Temple or religious rituals as such, but radier against the people’s flouting of the covenant between them and their God. The Rhetorical Questions Jeremiah presents die violation of the Ten Commandments as a rhetorical question: “Will you steal, murder, commit adulter}’…?” (v. 9). This is a con­ firmed rhetorical medium, i.e., the rhetorical question forces an answer on the part of the listener, and in this case, it is negative. Jeremiah uses rhetori­ cal questions to speak out against accepted opinions, or to rephrase the an­ swers to his questions. His rhetorical questions are designed to cause the audience to utter such responses as, “What are you talking about? Of course we won’t violate all Ten Commandments and then come to the Temple to pray”. Jeremiah continues with a more forceful rhetorical question: “Has this house, which is called by My name, become a den of robbers?” (v. 11 ). This is very strong language, and there is no doubt that it outraged his audi­ ence. Its significance is that the Temple has become a hiding place for criminals, thieves, and murderers, a city of refuge for those who are not entided to flee thereto. Jeremiah’s audience would consider such a pro­ nouncement to be a desecration of holiness. Jeremiah is playing on the emotions here, and his words befit the pa­ thos of Aristode’s rhetoric. The purpose of playing on the emotions in a speech is to influence the audience’s judgment, to cause it to identify with the orator’s content. 26 I Sat Alone Analogies Like even,” successful rhetorician, Jeremiah has to back up his words. It is not enough to reject widespread conceptions. He must prove his arguments with examples from history. Jeremiah needs to suggest opposing precedents to those presented by the false prophets. I Ie therefore notes two such his­ torical precedents. The first example is the destruction of Shiloh (v. 12-14). Before Jeremiah reaches the description of the Jerusalem Temple’s fate, he uses a series of relative clauses instead of stating directly that the Temple will be destroyed. “The Temple”, indicating Jerusalem, is placed at the beginning of the sentence, and “Shiloh”, which constitutes the negative precedent, is placed at the end. Between them are placed the descriptions of the Temple in Jerusalem: “therefore I will do to the house that is called by My name, in which you trust, and to the place that I gave to you and to your ancestors, just what I did to Shiloh” (v. 14). Jeremiah combines past, present, and future in one sentence, i.e., the Temple belongs to God: He gave it to the people and to their forefathers. The people currently trust in Him. God will do to the Temple what He has already done to another temple, Shiloh. This negative slant contradicts Jeremiah’s demands in the first part of the speech, i.e., “if you truly act justly” ( v. 5 ), yet it is apparent from verses 10 and 13 that the people’s actions arc mainly negative. What is the significance of the analogy to Shiloh? Jeremiah is saying that just as the Ark of the Coyenant was to no avail in the days of Samuel and Eli because the priests had greatly sinned, so the Temple in Jerusalem will be to no avail and will not protect the people, because they have not seen the error of their ways. Linking Shiloh and Jerusalem also appears in Psalm 78, although Jeremiah presents an opposing viewpoint to that of the psalm. Instead of presenting the difference between Jerusalem, which was chosen bv God, and Shiloh, which was rejected by Him, Jeremiah presents a parallel between the two towns: The citizens of both have sinned, and therefore a similar fate will befall them. Jeremiah’s words are considered to be innovative compared to those of other prophets. Isaiah, for example, never once mentioned the possibility of the Temple’s destruction. He spoke about exile, but not about the de­ struction of the Temple. The second precedent, with which Jeremiah ends his speech (v. 15), relates to the destruction of the Northern Kingdom, when the ten tribes were exiled. Why? Because they committed the sins against which the 4 Jeremiah’s Temple Sermon 27 prophet warned, and did not pay heed to their contemporary prophets’ ad­ vice (see 2 Kings 17:13-14). 1’hat being the case, the people have no insur­ ance—no Temple, and no Divine promise—that they will dwell in the Land of Israel to eternity. Jeremiah concludes his speech in a severe tone, i.e., threat of the de­ struction of the Temple and exile. Throughout all of Israel’s history, ex­ ile—the loss of property and independence, and life in a foreign land—was a substantive threat. In the eyes of the people, the destruction of the Temple meant losing their intimate connection with God, and living in an impure land. What Was Not Mentioned in the Speech? A comparison of the speech in Jeremiah 7 with other speeches reveals that the prophet omitted an important element in his speech: the kings of the House of David. While Jeremiah discusses the question of Jerusalem’s pro­ tection of her citizens, he does not specifically mention the kings of the House of David. This omission is despite the fact that the treatment of the orphaned, the poor, and the widowed is the king’s responsibility (see for example Ezek. 22:6-7; cf. 25, 29; Ps. 72:4; Prov. 23:10-11). Two possible reasons can be suggested for why Jeremiah did not men­ tion the kings of the House of David in his prophecy: First, because they are referred to in various prophecies, (particularly in Jer. 21-24). Secondly, specific mention of the kings of the House of David would have been likely to shift the focus from the discussion of the Temple and its functions, to the fate of the promise made to the House of David that it will be an ever­ lasting kingdom. The promise could have been used by the false prophets, claiming that not only is the Temple protected, but so is Jerusalem, not only because of the Divine presence therein, but also because of the promise made to David in 2 Samuel 7. By excluding specific mention of the kings of the House of David, Jeremiah can extend the legal demand for protection of the weak to society as a whole, as is done in the Pentateuch. “litis is also the apparent reason for why Jeremiah deviates from the line presented in Psalm 78: Instead of ending with the choice of David for the monarchy, he concludes with threats about the destruction of the Temple and the exile of the people from their land. The prosecution has now finished its argument. The ball is now in the hands of the people and their leaders, who must decide whether to embrace Jeremiah or to throttle him, whether to stone him or to applaud him. It is important to emphasize that in the days of Jeremiah, a means that had ex- 28 I Sat Alone isted in the days of the prophets who preceded him no longer existed, i.e., performing miracles in order to prove one’s message. This is how it had been in the days of Elijah on Mount Carmel when he brought down fire from the skies (1 Kings 18). In contrast, the only power that could be used in Jeremiah’s days was the power of speech. What was the people’s reaction to Jeremiah’s harsh words? The answer is presented in chapter 26 of Jeremiah, the focus of the next chapter. ... continue reading.

Research Paper ….The State……. Research Paper Assignment Instructions Overview In conjunction with Module/Week 8 of this course, you will be requi

Research Paper ….The State……. Research Paper Assignment Instructions Overview In conjunction with Module/Week 8 of this course, you will be required to draft a Research Paper, which acts as a summation of the course materials and themes. Be sure to read closely the grading rubric for the assignment and note that at least 20 scholarly sources (peer-reviewed academic journal articles or books published by university presses) are required, which should include the course readings for the included Natural Law thinkers. Scriptural excerpts with citations are required in all written assignments. Instructions Explain the assignment in detail. Specify the exact requirements of the assignment. Items to include are outlined as follows: · The papers must each be at least 20 pages long, which does not include the title page and bibliography, with default margins and 12-pt Times New Roman font. · Turabian Format · Citations to at least 20 scholarly sources are required. · Scriptural excerpts with citations are required in all written assignments, but these do not count toward the 20 required sources · Acceptable sources: all course readings for the included Natural Law thinkers (required), other primary sources by the included Natural Law thinkers, academic journal articles, books published by university presses. · Research Paper Topic: Is the Christian conception of Natural Law indispensable to a coherent moral theory of the State? · In your paper, be sure to mention all the Natural Law thinkers examined in the course and include the many Natural Law concepts contained in their theories: justice, citizenship, statesmanship, covenant, Christian kingship, democracy, the interaction between religious and civil offices, and positive law/public policy formation. · Include a concluding section entitled Public Policy Applications that relates the lessons of the Natural Law thinkers in the course to three public policy areas of your choice: one must be moral; one must be economic; and one can be any other area of public policy of interest to you. · Submit your Research Paper by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Friday of Module/Week 8. Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool. Criteria Ratings Points Content Mastery 54 to >49.0 pts Advanced The paper displays clear content mastery while critically analyzing / evaluating each of the assignment prompts. 49 to >44.0 pts Proficient The paper addresses each of the assignment prompts yet with modest evidence of subject mastery or critical analysis. 44 to >0.0 pts Developing The paper loosely relates to or neglects 1 or more of the assigned prompts, and does not effectively develop the discussion beyond minimal or superficial understanding of the topic. 0 pts Not Present 54 pts Clarity and Coherence 54 to >49.0 pts Advanced The paper is critical in its approach to each of the assignment prompts, providing evidence of coherent reasoning, analytical insight, and relevant research. 49 to >44.0 pts Proficient The paper is satisfactory but does not provide strong evidence of coherent reasoning, clear writing, or critical analysis based on careful research or current literature. 44 to >0.0 pts Developing The paper demonstrates a clear bias, or does not provide a clearly discernible position on the issue. Evidence of research is not present. 0 pts Not Present 54 pts Evidence and Detail 32 to >28.0 pts Advanced The paper provides evidence that is sufficiently detailed, defined, or explained, and highly relevant to the assignment prompts. 28 to >26.0 pts Proficient The paper contains satisfactory evidence yet is insufficiently detailed, defined, or explained, and/or questionably relevant to the assignment prompts. 26 to >0.0 pts Developing Evidence in the paper is insufficiently detailed, defined, or explained, and is marginally relevant to the assignment prompts if at all. 0 pts Not Present 32 pts Organization, Writing, Mechanics, Grammar, and Spelling 40 to >36.0 pts Advanced The argument, evidence, and conclusion of the paper are coherently written and organized, with fewer than 2 errors in grammar or spelling. 36 to >33.0 pts Proficient The argument, evidence, and conclusion of the paper are relatively clear, yet partially obscured by poor organization, writing mechanics, and/or fewer than 5 errors in grammar or spelling. 33 to >0.0 pts Developing The argument, evidence, and conclusion of the paper are disrupted by poor organization, writing mechanics, and/or fewer than 8 errors in grammar or spelling. 0 pts Not Present 40 pts Research Paper Assignment Grading Rubric | PLCY701_B02_202140 Criteria Ratings Points Current Turabian Format Compliance and Assignment Requirements 20 to >17.0 pts Advanced There are only minimal errors (1–2) noted in current Turabian formatting. The paper is at least 20 double-spaced pages long and uses at least 20 scholarly sources, as well as at least 1 Scripture reference. 17 to >16.0 pts Proficient There are a few errors (3–4) noted in current Turabian formatting. The paper may not meet the length requirement and may not use the required number of sources. 16 to >0.0 pts Developing There are numerous errors (5+) noted in current Turabian formatting. The paper does not meet the length requirement and does not use the required number of sources. 0 pts Not Present 20 pts Total Points: 200 Research Paper Assignment Grading Rubric | PLCY701_B02_202140 ... continue reading.

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